Biotechnology- An introduction
What is Biotechnology Course – When most of the students with medical stream (PCB Physics Chemistry Biology) think about their career path after class 12th they either think of doctor or a pharmacist.But fortunately the scope of this stream is much beyond just medical science.Biotechnology course offers students a very interesting and lucrative career opportunities.It offers a different perspective of science.The sector of biotechnology is growing at a steady pace in India.Today thousands of students from all parts of country are choosing biotechnology engineering field as their career.There are many biotechnology courses which enables the students to make a career in this field.However in this article we will read about two such major biotechnology courses and department of biotechnology which are quite popular among students, Bsc Biotechnology and B.Tech in Biotechnology.
In simple words biotechnology is the combination of biology and technology.Both aspects work together to help mankind.It can be defined as the use of living organisms or bio molecular processes to create technology and products which help us to improve our life.Biotechnology is based on the concept that all living organisms have one thing in common i.e DNA.It is the modification of cell structures according to human needs so that they can be used for research work and product development.It blends together the concepts of cellular and molecular biology and animal, human and plant genetics.We have been using biotechnology since ancient times to improve the quality of human life in different fields such as medicine, agriculture and food production.Biotechnology has its applications in various fields like pollution control, growth of vaccines, animal husbandry, curing diseases, energy conservation and production etc.Applications of modern Biotechnology includes genetic engineering.
What does a Bio technologist do?
A bio technologist is a trained professional who has deep knowledge about various living structures and use it in different fields like medical , agriculture, manufacturing, food etc.There are a number of duties a bio technologist can perform.Tasks of a bio technologist may vary depending upon the industry they are a part of.Most Bio Technologist may work in labs.Their job may include assisting lab technicians, writing records, analyzing results, doing research work etc.They also set up the instruments used for different experiments and conduct them.
The scope of biotechnology spreads across various fields and since everyone can not do everything, a bio technologist chooses his/her specific area of specialization.One may indulge in the processing of food and household products.They also make many preservatives and additives which are found in preserved food items.Bio technologists are responsible for production of various food items such as soya bean and yeast.
A bio technologist plays important role in the medical field as well.They research to find the cure of various diseases.They also work to improve various drugs and the treatments they are used for.
A Bio Technologist who specializes in the field of agriculture may be involved in plant and animal research.Their job is to research on various pesticides and their effect on crops and our environment and to develop their alternatives.They also use genetic engineering to make hybrid fruits and vegetables.
Research and production is not the only work Bio technologists do.They can work as investigator in various companies to ensure the whole process is being done safely and health standards are being maintained.Senior professionals can lead or manage research teams and various projects.
Academic programs in Biotechnology Colleges:
Bsc in Biotechnology
Bsc in Biotechnology is an undergraduate degree program.It’s duration is 3 years which includes 6 semesters.This course includes subjects such as maths, biology, chemistry and physics.The course focuses on deep understanding of various biological processes at cellular and organism level.Students are given both theory and practical sessions.Some of the subjects which are taught in this course are
- Cell Biology
- Bio molecules
- Antigens and Antibodies
- Biotechnology Medical
- Microbiology of soil
- Co enzymes
- Lipid Metabolism
- Genetic Mapping
- Biofertilizer and Biopesticide
B.Tech in Biotechnology
B.Tech in Biotechnology is a four year bachelor degree undergraduate program in biotechnology.It is an engineering program.Just like any other engineering discipline the duration of this course is 4 years, divided into 8 semesters.Each semester is about 6 months long.Both theory and practical sessions are imparted to students along with internship programs.Subjects which you will study under this course may include
- Nano Biotechnology
- Agricultural Biotechnology
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology
- Metabolic Engineering
- Principles of Chemical Processes
- Microbiology and Immunology
- Genetics and Genetic Engineering
- Genomics and Proteomics
- Enzyme Engineering and Technology
- Process Control
NOTE- Subjects may differ in different colleges depending upon the management .The basic remains same.
The eligibility requirement to apply for undergraduate degree in Biotechnology (Bsc and B.Tech)
The basic eligibility criteria to apply for Bsc in Biotechnology and B.Tech in Biotechnology remains same.A student must have passed his/her class 12th examinations from a recognized national or state level board of education with science stream.Students with both PCB (Physics Chemistry Biology) and PCM (Physics Chemistry Maths) can apply for the course.
Along with this it is mandatory to clear various entrance exams held by various colleges who give admission strictly on the basis of merit scored in these tests.
Academic Paths in Biotechnology
Here are the few courses one can pursue in the field of Biotechnology:
- Bsc in Biotechnology
- Bsc in Applied Biotechnology
- Bsc in Medical Biotechnology
- B.Tech in Biotechnology
- B.E. Biotechnology
- B.Tech in Industrial Microbiology
- B.Tech. Industrial Biotechnology
- Msc in Biotechnology
- M.Tech in Biotechnology
- M.E in Bio informatics
- Msc in Medical Biotechnology
- M.Tech in Bio process Engineering
- M.Tech. Industrial Biotechnology
- M.Sc. Nanobiotechnology
How to become a Bio technologist
STEP 1– Take science stream in high school.
One must choose science stream in their 11th class because only students with science stream can apply for this course.You can choose either PCM or PCB as your subjects.
STEP 2– Give entrance exams.
One must give national and state level entrance exams held for admission in various Biotechnology courses in order to get yourself eligible for admission in various colleges.
STEP 3– Earn a Bachelors degree (Bsc or B.Tech in Biotechnology or any other course in this field) from a reputed college.
STEP 4– Earn internships through college.
STEP 5– Get a job.
Entrance exams for admission in Biotechnology courses
- A.I.I.M.S (All India Institute of Medical Sciences) Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- J.A.M Biotechnology Entrance Examination of I.I.T (Indian Institute of Technology), Chennai
- Goa University Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- J.N.U (Jawaharlal Nehru University) Combined Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- Combined Biotechnology Entrance Examination (CBEEE)
- Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi JAM Biotechnology entrance exam
- All India Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Common Entrance Test
- Kurukshetra University Biotechnology Entrance Exam
- Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Biotechnology Entrance Exam
- M.K.U (Madurai Kamaraj University) Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- Central University Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- Anna University Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- Alagappa University M. Sc Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- B.H.U (Banaras Hindu University) M.Sc Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- H.P.U (Himachal Pradesh University) M.Sc Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- O.U (Osmania University) M.Sc Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- University of Mysore M.Sc Biotechnology Entrance Examination
- University of Madras M.Sc Biotechnology Entrance Examination
Top Biotechnology Colleges in India
- A.V.C. College – Bachelor of Science in Bio-Technology
- Bangalore City College – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
- Amity Institute of Biotechnology – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
- Fergusson College, Pune – Bachelors of Science in Biotechnology
- Dayanand College – Bachelor of Science In Biotechnology
- I.P. College – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
- Jodhpur National University – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
- Dasmesh Girls College of Education – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
- Khalsa College Amritsar – Bachelor Of Science in Biotechnology
- St. Mary’s College For Women – Bachelor Of Science In Bio-Technology
- Kishan Institute Of Information Technology, Meerut
- Vivekanand Education Society’s College of Arts, Science and Commerce – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
- St. George College of Management, Science & Nursing – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
- Shyamlal Saraswati Mahavidyalaya – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
- T John College (TJC), Bangalore – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
- Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli – Bachelor Of Science In Bio Technology
- Madina Degree College – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
- MVP Samaj’s K.T.H.M College – Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology
B.Tech in Biotechnology
- GGS Indraprastha University , Delhi
- Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (IITG)
- Indian Institute Of Technology , Madras
- All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
- Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (IITR)
- Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University
- VIT University (VIT)
- PSG College of Technology (PSGTECH)
- Jaypee Institute of Information Technology
- National Institute of Technology, Durgapur (NIT D)
- Dr B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology Jalandhar (NITJ)
- Mepco Schlenk Engineering College
- B.S. Abdur Rahman University (BSAU)
- National Institute of Technology, Warangal (NIT, Warangal)
- Thapar University (TU Patiala)
- Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management University (GITAM University)
- Indian Institute of Technology, (IIT Madras)
- Andhra University (AU, Visakhapatnam)
- National Institute of Technology (NITC)
- BMS College of Engineering (BMSCE)
- Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT)
- Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT)
- Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IITD)
Career Prospects in Biotechnology
Biotechnology is one field which has a lot of scope for growth and development of an individual.It is a fast growing sector and it is not a difficult to find a job after doing this course.A Biotech professional can seek job in a variety of sectors such as agriculture, textile industry, manufacturing industries, pharmaceutical companies, chemical industries, healthcare sector, food and drug industry, clinical research, genetic research etc.Both government and private sector offers opportunities to Biotechnology graduates.
- Research scientist
- Senior Research Associate
- Quality Control Officer
- Bioinformatics Analyst/Programmer
- Bio technologist
- Manufacturing Supervisor
- Facilities Technician
- Lab Technician
- Bioinformatics Scientist/Engineer
- Quality Control (QC) Technician
- Sales Representative
- Molecular Modeler
- Director of Product/Process Development
- Environmental Health & Safety Specialist
- Director of Quality
- Director/Manager of Regulatory Affairs
- Director of Project Management
- Hindustan Antibiotics
- Thapar Group
- Himalaya Drug Company
- Bharat Biotech
- Biocon India Ltd.
- Hindustan Lever Ltd
- SRL Ranbaxy
- Praj Industries
- Panacea Biotech
- Yashraj Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a highly rewarding career with no salary limits.Salary may depend on the post and sector one os working in.A fresher can expect between Rs 10,000-Rs 15000 per month.Once you have gained enough experience you can earn high packages up to Rs 20,00,000 annualy and even more.If one has completed his/her degree from a reputed college then they can start to earn in lakhs right from the start of their career.